PEM, DER, CRT, and CER: X.509 Encodings and Conversions

You may have seen digital certificate files with a variety of filename extensions, such as .crt, .cer, .pem, or .der. These extensions generally map to two major encoding schemes for X.509 certificates and keys: PEM (Base64 ASCII), and DER (binary). However, there is some overlap and other extensions are used, so you can’t always tell […]